Sukhova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna, Doctor of historical sciences, professor, dean of the Faculty of History and Languages, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Yagov Oleg Vasil'evich, Doctor of historical sciences, professor, sub-department of Russian history and history teaching technique, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The chosen topic relevance is determined by the need to develop an explanatory model of the mobilization economy functioning in the USSR. The current situation of question historiography accord to the initial stage of institutionalization and problematization of specific historical material at the macro-and microlevel of research practice. There are also gaps in the providing empirical data for theoretical research. The purpose of the study is to carry out a systematic analysis of the factors, mechanisms and forms of rural population social adaptation to the extreme conditions of military everyday life in the era of the Great Patriotic War, the study of mobilization economy in the context of social interaction practices and the everyday life history.
Materials and methods. The article analyzes the regional historiography of the socio-cultural development of rear territories study in the Great Patriotic War era. The body of sources is formed of the office work documentation of party management agencies, personal origin materials, including first introduced into scientific circulation ones. The research methodology is based on the systematic approach principles to the consideration of the Soviet society history. Military weekdays of the Soviet village are reconstructed in the context of the everyday life history. The constructionist approach using, and above all, the principle of multi-factor interaction (communication), equalizing in the process of social reality formation the ruling elite and the population of the country, recognizing the Soviet village active beginning in the creation of adaptation mechanisms in rural everyday life, and in the organizational and functional model of mobilization economy have key importance.
Results. Socially significant channels of communications were identified, their specificity and development tendencies were defined as a result of applying a systematic approach. The assessment of the Soviet village material, demographic, intellectual and psychological resources in the war era has been given. The reproduction processes of everyday structures and the social identity formation have been described.
Conclusions. The practices of social interaction were formed at the local level (horizontal orientation communication: family, neighbors, rural community; social identity; life values reproduction) and at the regional level (vertical orientation; characterized by openness to communication and interaction of higher management groups and local communities; civil identity; reproduction and evolution of the basic national values content). Slowing of the rhythm and management reactions speed that are distributed along the vertical channel of communication in the initial phase of war, that is explained by the resources sharp reduction of the Soviet village. The cultural landscape of military everyday life was formed from the most archaic survival practices focused on almost total involvement in the system of state provision, that demonstrates the maximum degree of state “invasion” into the private life of citizens and at the same time the certain categories of the population strict dependence on the successful realization of the normalized distribution of food, fuel and etc. The most serious challenge to the usual social practices will be mobilization campaigns and organized migration of large population groups (evacuated, mobilized for production, etc.). The burdens and hardships of the war era, the loss of communication with family members, the death of loved ones experience will serve as the basis for an extremely high level of mass sentiments anxiety, threatening the stability of the life values reproduction, which generated the social apathy and marginalization of social groups.
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